By Roger Crowley
Now in alternate paperback, a gripping exploration of the autumn of Constantinople and its connection to the area we are living in today
the autumn of Constantinople in 1453 signaled a shift in historical past, and the tip of the Byzantium Empire. Roger Crowley's readable and finished account of the conflict among Mehmed II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and Constantine XI, the 57th emperor of Byzantium, illuminates the interval in heritage that was once a precursor to the present jihad among the West and the center East.
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Additional resources for 1453: The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West
In 1000 years no aggressor ever heavily tried an assault at this element. The beach was once guarded by way of a unmarried unbroken wall at the least fifty ft above the coastline interspersed with a sequence of 188 towers and a couple of small defended harbors. The risk to this wall got here now not from ships yet from the ceaseless motion of the waves undermining its foundations. now and then nature used to be extra brutal nonetheless: within the sour iciness of 764 the ocean partitions have been beaten by means of ice floes that rode up over the parapets. the entire size of the Marmara wall used to be studded with marble inscriptions commemorating the maintenance of successive emperors. the ocean ran strongly round this coastline so far as the end of the Acropolis element, earlier than turning north into the calmer waters of the Golden Horn. The Horn itself supplied a great sheltered anchorage for the imperial fleet; one hundred ten towers commanded a unmarried wall alongside this stretch with quite a few water gates and monstrous harbors, however the defenses have been continuously thought of susceptible. It was once the following that the Venetians had pushed their ships up at the foreshore through the Fourth campaign, overtopping the ramparts and storming town. so that it will block the mouth of the Horn in occasions of warfare, the defenders were within the behavior because the Arab siege of 717 of drawing a increase around the front of the Horn. This took the shape of a 300-yard chain, inclusive of sizeable forged iron hyperlinks every one twenty inches lengthy that have been supported on strong wood floats. With the goodwill of the Genoese, the chain might then be secured to a tower at the sea wall of Galata at the some distance facet. in the course of the iciness months either chain and floats have been ready opposed to the potential for a naval assault. Inscription at the partitions: “The Tower of St. Nicholas was once restored from the rules, less than Romanus, the Christ-loving Sovereign” the bottom of the triangle of the city’s website at the westward aspect was once secure by means of the four-mile land wall, the so-called wall of Theodosius, which ran around the grain of the land from the ocean of Marmara to the Golden Horn and sealed off Constantinople from any traditional land-borne attack. a number of the most vital occasions within the background of town have been performed out alongside this impressive constitution. It virtually matched town itself in sturdiness, and projected a feeling of mythical immutability in the Mediterranean global. for plenty of imminent Constantinople around the flat Thracian plains as a dealer or pilgrim, an envoy from a Balkan court docket, or a plundering military with pretensions to conquest, the 1st sight of Constantinople at its apogee used to be the ominous prospect of the land partitions driving the mild undulations of the panorama from horizon to horizon in a typical unbroken succession of ramparts and towers. within the solar the limestone partitions created a facade of awesome white, banded with horizontal operating seams of ruby-red Roman brick and arrow slits equally arched; the towers – sq., hexagonal, octagonal, sometimes round – have been so shut jointly that, as one crusader positioned it, “a seven-year-old boy may well toss an apple from one turret to the subsequent.