By Jean Boase-Beier, Ken R. Lodge
The German Language introduces scholars of German to a linguistic means of taking a look at the language. Written from a Chomksyan viewpoint, this quantity covers the fundamental structural parts of the German language: syntax, morphology, phonetics, phonology, and the lexicon.
* Explores the linguistic constitution of German from present theoretical views.
* Written from a Chomksyan viewpoint, this quantity covers the fundamental structural elements of the German language: syntax, morphology, phonetics, phonology, and the lexicon.
* Serves as a important source for college students of German language and literature and for linguists with very little heritage within the language.
* comprises routines, definitions of keywords, and proposals for additional reading.
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Additional info for The German Language: A Linguistic Introduction
Such phrases, like krachen (‘to crash’), plumpsen (‘to fall heavily’, ‘to flop’), zischen (‘to hiss’), platschen (‘to splash’), in addition to the corresponding interjections krach! (‘crash! ’), plumps! (‘flop! ’), zisch! (‘hiss! ’), platsch! (‘splash’), are known as onomato-poeic phrases. The examples above illustrate varieties of iconicity. In instance (35), the repeated sounds echo a repetitive circulate and in Stylistics 179 (40) sounds echo sounds. Examples resembling (35) are often referred to as secondary iconicity and examples similar to (40) as basic iconicity. we will outline basic iconicity because the direct mirroring of content material within the type of the language buildings, while secondary iconicity is an oblique mirroring, corresponding to sounds representing now not sounds yet stream, as in (35), a contrast additionally made by way of Lyons (1977). lets additionally say that secondary iconicity is in a feeling metaphorical iconicity: content material is reflected no longer by way of anything similar to it yet via anything concerning what resembles it. What relates the sounds in (35) to the flow they symbolize is the portion of repetition. this might be visible as an interplay of the main of Metaphor given in (29) with the primary of Iconicity given in (39). Examples (35) and (40) either express the main of Iconicity have interaction- ing on the phonological point, to impact the sounds selected to symbolize a selected cognitive content material. notwithstanding, iconicity can engage with different degrees of the language, too, particularly the syntax. An example of fundamental syntactic iconicity will be Handke’s (1969: 134) ultimate line: (42) Plötzlich, mitten im letzten Satz . . . by surprise, in the course of the ultimate sentence . . . that's an unfinished sentence and for that reason without delay echoes the which means represented. within the following stanzas from the poem ‘Worte’ by way of Karl Krolow (Conrady 1977: 918), there's vast repetition of VPs: (43) Aber die Namen bleiben Im Ohre nur ein Gesumm Wie von Zikaden und Bienen, Kehren ins Schweigen um. Vokale – geringe Insekten, Unsichtbar über die Luft, Fallen als Asche nieder, Bleiben als Quittenduft. however the names stay As a humming within the ear The sound of bees and cicadas Turning to silence. Vowels – redundant bugs flow within the air unseen Fall and settle as ashes stay because the odor of quinces. a hundred and eighty Stylistics In those stanzas the repeated VPs are: (44) die Namen bleiben [die Namen] kehren ins Schweigen um [Vokale] fallen als Asche nieder [Vokale] bleiben als Quittenduft in 3 of which the topic, written in sq. brackets, can basically be retrieved via recourse to the Gapping precept (see part 7. 2 above). The repetition of the straightforward unembedded vice chairman buildings, together with either repetition on the phonological point in metre and rhyme and repetition on the semantic point in phrases for bugs ( Zikaden, Bienen, Insekten) and phrases for insubstantial or summary entities ( Namen, Gesumm, Schweigen, Vokale, Luft, Asche, Duft), may be interpreted as echoing the endurance of phrases, the subject of the poem.